Geography and Economy

Morena district is extended in the north 250 17’ to 260 52’ latitudes and 760 30’ to 780 33’ East longitudes. The river Chambal flows forming all northern boundaries of the district and divides Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh from the district. In the south-east of the district is Gwalior, Shivpuri in south, Bhind in east, Agra (U.P) in north-east, Dhaulpur and Karauli (Rajasthan) in north-west and Sheopur in southwest. The district is situated at 150 to 300 meters from the mean sea level. As reported by Surveyor General of India, its geographical area is 4,989 sq.km. It is the 34th largest district of the state in respect of area which is 1.6% of the total area 308,244 sq.kms of the state.
The district lies on the meeting point of the Vindhyan Plateau and the low lying zone of Chambal Valley. The southeren and the south-eastern parts of the district lie on the Vindhya Plateau and the northern part and the north-western belt along the Chambal lie in the valley. The plateau is the part of northern edge of the Malwa and the great Vindhya plateau which extends upto Gwalior and Morena district. The general height is about 300 meters above mean sea level. In this part the ridges and low hills of Bhander sandstones are marked, whose height is about 350 to 400 meters. The slope is towards south to north-west. The major part of the district is the part of Chambal valley whose average height is 160 meters from the mean sea level. The Chambal valley can be divided into two parts i.e. the first part is the bank of Chambal ravines (Beehads) where series of ravines deep gullies and ridges of dividing moulds are developed. On the other hand the main canal of Chambal of south-eastern plain part is very fertile.

DRAINAGE

The district falls in drainage area of Ganges system. The whole water of the district drained out through Chambal river which joins the Yamuna . Generally, the flow of the water is towards north-east. Chambal is the main river of the district. Asan and Kunwari are the tributaries of Chambal river.

(1) The Chambal river :

This river flows from west to north in the district. The Chambal river rises from the Janapao hills (854 meters)in Indore district. It flows through Indore ,Ujjain, Ratlam, and after Mandsaur through Rajasthan. At the point of Parvati confluence it touches the Sheopur district and forming the eastern boundary of the district. It enters Morena district north to Nitanvas and makes the inter-state natural boundary between Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan and flows ahead. After identification of boundary of Uttar pradesh it joines Yamuna river in Etawa district.The Chambal valley has high banks with deep and widely development ravines by which it is known as Chambal ravines (Chambal Beehad).

(2) Asan river

This river rises from the plateau of Deori in Vijaypur tahsil of Sheopur district . It makes about 24 kms. boundary away from the district and flows north-easterly course. Its course has two dams at Pagara and Kutwar. The river forms the district boundary with Bhind for some distance and flows towards north of Bhind district . The main tributary is Kunwari which joins at Sangoli village . On the right bank of the district the south or the Sank is the only tributary joining the Asan from the north-eastern course of Kutwar dam.

(3) The Kunwari river

The Kunwari river rises from the north-eastern plateau of Deogarh in Shivpuri district and enters Sabalgarh tahsil of Sheopur district . It flows towards north east at the middle part of the district and flows to Joura, Morena and Ambah tahsil and joins Asan river. The small tributaries like Sole, and Son etc. are flowing in the district.

CLIMATE:

The climate of this district is semi dry and generally dryness prevails in the region. The heat is intense in summer, dust-laden scorching winds and heatstroke flows which often makes the weather very uncomfortable. The mean daily temperature in the months of May and June is maximum 44.0 celsius. In cold season the district has freezing cold and temperature drops to 2.80 celsius. During the monsoon season light air blows west to east . After the withdrawal of the monsoon and winter there is slight air that flows mostly from north to north western direction. Generally rainfall in the district is irregular and on an average the annual rainfall recorded is 862.6 mm . About 92% of the rainfall in the district is received during June to September.

The forest are generally open and poorly stocked over considerable part of the area, due to shallow nature of the soil. The height and diameter growth of trees are in general poor.
The reserved forest area in the district is 50,669 hectares and 26,847 hectares is protected forest which are mostly found in Sabalgarh and Jaura CD blocks. The forests are dry and autumnal . Fire wood, grass and gum are mainly found in these forests . In forest areas, Blue bull (Neelgai) , wild boar , jackal , hyenas , peacocks , rabbits , foxes , porcupine, wolves , spotted deers and deers and are the wild life found.The deer group of animal is represented by chital (Axis) which used to be seen in herds. Now such herds are rarely seen. The other common deer species is sambhar (cervus unicolar) which is generally seen in hilly areas. The black faced monkey (presliytic entallus) are seen in the forests. The other animals generally noticed are hyaena, wild dog, fox etc.
The most magnificent quite common birds found locally is peacock (pavo cristatus). The common snakes in the district are cobra, craite, python etc.

MINERALS:

The district cannot be said to be rich in minerals. The plenty of lime stone is found in Kailaras CD block. The occurrence of glass sand is found near Nurabad in Dhanela village which is used in glass industry. The building stones, sand stones, Muram mines are being excavated in the area of Pahari.

AGRICULTURE:

The soil of the district is alluvial. The level of the river banks land are also alluvial. The economy of the district is mainly based on agriculture. More than 50% land is under cultivation. The double crops i.e. Rabi and Kharif crops are wholly sown in the district. Under kharif crops jawar, bajra, rice, tuar, urad and moong are sown and under Rabi crops wheat, gram and mustard are sown. Mustard is sown in the largest area of the district. Main crops according to use of area is mustard 174,982 hect., wheat 81,506 hect, gram 12,704 hect, vegetables 608 hect’s and spices in 239 hect.

LAND USE:

Main soil of the district is Kanhari. Total geographical area of the district is 501,686 hectares, out of which forest area 50,669 hectare as reported. The non agricultural land is 130,589 hectares, un-cultivable land is 18,860 hectares and cultivable waste land is 17,561 hectares. Total cropped area of the district is 268,173 hectares. Soil of the district is fertile and suitable for rabi and kharif both crops.

IRRIGATION:

Economy of the district like the vast majority of the districts of the state is dominated by agriculture. Main source of the irrigation is canals. Irrigation by canals is 66,278 hectares, by wells 87,604 hectares by tubewells 31,330 hectares. and by ponds and other sources 1,144 hectares of land is reported. Thus the total irrigated area is 186,856 hectares in the district. For irrigation purpose there are 9 canals, 2,166 tubewells, 20,954 wells and 52 ponds respectively in the district. Due to promotions of means of irrigation, improvement in traditional methods has been taken up. Irrigated areas has rapidly increased in the district.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY:

The cow and Buffalo are the main cattle rear in the district . As a cattle rearing industry milk production is in large quantity in the district.

FISHERY :

A wide range of fishes are found in various rivers, streams and medium and small reservoirs of the district. Indian major carps (Catla, Labeo Rohita, Cirrhina mrigala etc) are the important food fishes. Bawas (Catla Catla) is surface feeder while Rohu and Narains are bottom feeders.
Ambasis (glass fishes) and kuti ( Rohtee tictus) fishes are also found in district. These are small transparent bodies with laterally flattened. These are known as glass fishes.
Other common fishes of the district are Bam (mastacembelus armatus), moi or chitola, singri (Heteropnous fossilis) and magur (clarias batrachlus).

INDUSTRY AND TRADE:

Due to rich in mustard seed production, the mustard oil producing industries are in huge number in district . There are 11 industries at Bamor industrial centre. Under rural development programme, 552 small scale industries were established. The Cement factory, Bahmor sugar mill Kailaras, J.K Tyre Bamor and Rathi oil mill, Morena has the big industries in the district. Due to much agricultural production in the district agriculture based trade activities are much in the district. Through agriculture product market mustard, wheat, gram, and oil is exported from this district. Large quantity of oil and oil canes are exported even to some foreign countries.

ELECTRICITY AND POWER:

There were 87640 consumers of electricity in the year 2009-10 .The total consumption of electricity was 118193 thousand K.W.H. of which 57245 thousand K,W.H. was domestic consumption, commercial 12,936, industrial 29,400 K.W.H., water supply 3903 K.W.H.,irrigation 12665 K.W.H. and street light 2044 K.W.H.in 2009-10 There is no production of electricity in the district. 99.34% villages of the district were electrified in 2009-10 .

TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION:

The district headquarters is located on Agra-Mumbai National Highway No.3 and on Central railway lines. Roads are constructed by P.W.D., Forest Department and Rural Development Department in the district which are inter-connected with Tahsils and community development Blocks headquarters as well as with all village panchayats . On the Central rail line of the district Morena , Sank, Nurabad, Bamor, Sikranada, and Hetampur stations are situated. The Gwalior – Sheopur narrow gauge railway line passes through the district where Bamor, Jaora, Kailaras Ran-Pahadi and Sabalgarh are main stations and on Gwalior to Bhind railway lines there are Shanichara and Rethaura railway stations. The nearest air facility is available at Gwalior.